האם השמדת הליברטי הספינה האמריקנית "הליברטי "ב- 1967 הייתה מזימה משותפת של ישראל וארה"ב ?
" חמישים וחמש שנים מלאו למלחמת ששת הימים ולהפצצת הספינה האמריקנית "ליברטי" בידי ישראל
ומדוע ? על כך יש תשובות רבות.
ליברטי ,ספינה אמריקנית שהופצצה בידי ישראל .
ב-8 ביוני 1967, היום הרביעי למלחמת ששת הימים , תקפו מטוסים של חיל האוויר הישראלי וספינות טורפדו של חיל הים את ספינת הביון האמריקנית ליברטי " , ששייטה במים בינלאומיים ליד על-עריש, ועקבה אחר המלחמה באמצעות ציוד ההאזנה שלה.. מתוך 294 אמריקנים שהיו על הסיפון, נהרגו 34 ונפצעו 172.
הפרשה הביכה מאוד את ישראל, שמיהרה להודות בטעות, ולהתנצל על התקרית. ההסבר הרשמי היה שבערפל הקרב ששרר, לא זיהו המטוסים והספינות הישראליות את כלי השייט האמריקני כספינה ידידותית, וסברו שמדובר בספינה מצרית. גם ועדה אמריקנית שחקרה את הפרשה הגיעה למסקנה דומה: הישראלים הטביעו את הספינה, אך זו הייתה טעות בזיהוי.
בספר בשם מבצע ציאניד: כיצד הטבעת הליברטי כמעט וגרמה למלחמת עולם שלישית" טען העיתונאי הבריטי פיטר הונאם האיש שחשף את פרשת וענונו והיה לו הכבוד המפוקפק להיות מגורש לאחרונה מישראל כי התקפה ישראלית על ספינת ביון אמריקנית במלחמת ששת הימים הייתה למעשה מזימה אמריקנית-ישראלית, שנועדה לספק לארה"ב עילה להתערב במלחמה ולפגוע במשטרו של נאצר, ידידה הנאמן של בריה"מ במזרח התיכון. לדעתו לא היה כל בלבול בהתקפה הישראלית על הספינה . ישראל ידעה כל השמן שהמדובר בספינה אמריקנית וארה"ב ידעה שעומדת להיות עליה התקפה ישראלית , הספינה נשלחה במיוחד על מנת שתותקף על ידי ישראל .
לטענתו של הונאם הישראלים, לפי התוכנית, אמורים היו לבצע משימה פשוטה – להטביע את הספינה. לאחר מכן היו האמריקנים מטילים את האשמה על הנשיא נאצר, ותוקפים את קהיר, בת בריתה של מוסקבה במזרח התיכון, בסיועה של ישראל שממילא רצתה להביס את מצרים במלחמה.
אלא שבניגוד לתיכנון לא הצליחו הישראלים להטביע את הספינה ואנשי צוותה שהצליחו להימלט למלטה ולהעיד שהמדובר היה בהתקפה ישראלית .וכך נכשלה התוכנית .
הטבעת הליברטי והטלת האשמה על מצרים ועל הסובייטים הייתה מאפשרת לנשיא ג'ונסון לעשות כמעט הכל – אפילו להפיל פצצת אטום על קהיר", טוען הונאם" אבל דווקא כאן ניכשלו הישראלים .
גם אנשים אחרים חוץ מהונאם טוענים שבפרשת ליברטי היה טיוח של המימשל האמריקני שנועד לנקות את ישראל ואולי גם את עצמו .
הנה אחד המאמרים הטובים ביותר שהופיעו על הפרשה של זאב שיף והרש גודמן שהופיעו בו זמנית בספטמבר 1984 בעברית במגזין "מוניטין ובאנגלית המגזין "אטלנטיק".
האם במאמר זה ניתן הפיתרון המלא למה שקרה לספינה "ליברטי" ?
תוכלו להגדיל את דפי המאמר עם העכבר"
כבונוס מובאים גם עוד שני מאמרים על פרשת הליברטי.
אחד שהופיע במוסף סוף השבוע "7 ימים " של ידיעות אחרונות שמקורו בכתב העת האמריקני "פנטהאוז" ובו מובעת אחת מתיאוריות הקונספירציה המרובות על פרשת הליברטי
ומאמרשל אמיר אורן מ"דבר השבוע " שמראה עד כמה הפרשה מטרידה חוגים שונים בארה"ב.
בסיום רשימת ספרים על הפרשה שמראה שהעניין בפרשה רק הולך וגובר עם השנים: "
אפשר להגדיל את הדפים עם"העכבר"
עוד מאמר על פרשת הליברטי למעשה הראשון מסוגו וזה ( או אחד מאלה ) שהמאמר שלמעלה מגיב עליו
The Attack on the Liberty" by Anthony Pearson.
מאת אנתוני פיארסון שהופיע בגיליון מאי 1976 של המגזין "פנטהאוז
המאמר היה כה שנוי במחלוקת שרק המגזין האירוטי פנטהאוז העיז לפרסמו .
אבל עורכי '[ידיעות אחרונות 'ששמעו על המאמר החליטו לפרסם אותו כמעט במקביל.
פיארסון היה עיתונאי בריטי שסיקר את מלחמת ששת הימים .
לאחר שפירסם את המאמר הרחיב אותו לספר ב-1979 וראו ברשימת הספרים למטה.
והנה המאמר בתרגום לעברית לפניכם
פורסם בעברית כמעט במקביל במגזין "7 ימים " של ידיעות אחרונות ב–28.5.1976
והנה רשימה שעוסקת בזעם הנורא שנשאר בחוגים שונים בארה"ב כנגד ישראל כתוצאה מפרשת "ליברטי".
"ליברטי " מאת אמיר אורן "
"דבר השבוע מוסף סוף השבוע של העיתון "דבר"
נספח: רשימת הספרים באנגלית על הפרשה:
Anthony Pearson, Conspiracy of Silence: The Attack on the USS Liberty, 1979
An investigative reporter relates the story of an Israeli attack on an American spy ship during the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War and the concomitant U.S.-Israeli intrigues
Surviving officer of the Liberty, after interviewing government and military officials and other Liberty survivors, presents a full, candid account of how Israel knowingly attacked and almost sank an American spy ship in 1967
Pearl Harbour II :the true story of the sneak attack by Israel upon the U.S.S. Liberty, June 8, 1967 /by Jim Taylor. London : Regency Press, c1980.
סא"ל מתי גרינברג, תקרית תקיפת ה"ליברטי" (8 ביוני 1967), אג"ם-מה"ד המחלקה להיסטוריה, פברואר 1982. הוצאה שנייה בעריכת סא"ל בעז זלמנוביץ 2017.
Borne, John Edgar The USS liberty : dissenting history vs. official history / . Thesis (Ph.D.)–New York University, 1993.
The author has taught American History at both Pace and Baruch Colleges in New York City. The book itself is the published version of his PhD dissertation obtained from the Department of History at New York University (NYU). Anyone who has worked on a PhD dissertation knows that documentation must be rigorous and that the dissertation goes through faculty review prior to a defense by the student. Anyone who knows anything about NYU, knows that the institution is not a home to anti-Semitism.
The author has done a remarkable job of examining and documenting the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty on June 8, 1967 and the aftermath. After a brief introduction, the author examines the attack on the ship, the actions and response of the Johnson White House, the Navy board of inquiry along with the response in Congress and the press, what followed the Naval court's report, the efforts by the Liberty crew to reveal the truth, and the Liberty crew's campaign and responses with regard to Israel, the US government, the press, and the public.
Cristol, A. Jay (2002). The Liberty Incident: The 1967 Israeli Attack on the U.S. Navy Spy Ship. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey'
מהדורה שנייה מורחבת 2013
ג'יי קריסטול התקיפה הישראלית ב-1967 על אוניית הריגול של צי ארצות הברית – תחקיר מסכם תרגום לעברית יעקב שרת יורם שרת, 2016.
The Liberty Incident Revealed is the complete and final story about the Israeli Air Force and Navy attack on the USS Liberty during the Six Day War in June 1967. Cutting through all of the controversy and conspiracy theories about Israel's deadly attack, Cristol revises his well-regarded book about the event with an expanded and in-depth analysis of all of the sources, including the released tapes of the National Security Agency (NSA) intercepts.
When Cristol's first book on the subject, The Liberty Incident, was published in 2002, there remained many unanswered questions about Israeli Air Force audio tapes. The NSA intercepts tapes had not yet been released in 2002. Some conspiracy theorists alleged the NSA tapes would prove that the Israeli attack was premeditated. Cristol's successful Freedom of Information Act lawsuit against the NSA, while resulting in the release of those tapes, has been greeted by anti-Israel sources insisting that the NSA tapes are fraudulent and are part of a larger conspiracy to deceive the American public.
After a quarter of a century of intensive research in both Israel and the U.S., researching all relevant archives from NSA, CIA and the State Department, reviewing both formerly classified and open source documents, and interviewing all then-living individuals directly involved in the incident, the factual and documentary record is clear. Cristol maintains that despite the fact that all of the official records and transcripts are now available for review, the truth has proven to be of no interest to those individuals and organizations who are motivated by hidden agendas, wish to keep conspiracy theories alive, or are trying to feed sensational stories to the media. Documenting his findings in six new chapters, Cristol establishes definitively that the Israeli attack was a tragic mistake and presents a convincing argument that will be regarded as the final chapter in the long-simmering debate about this incident.
Operation Cyanide :
Why the Bombing of the USS Liberty Nearly Caused World War III / Peter Hounam. London : Vision, 2003
In June, 1967, jet aircraft and motor torpedo boats of Israel brutally assaulted an American naval vessel, the USS Liberty, in international waters off the Sinai Peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea. Thirty-four men died and 172 were wounded. The author was an officer on the bridge when the attack started and subsequently spent many years researching and documenting this meticulous account of the attack and the cover-up that followed.
Victor Thorn and John Glenn, A Ship Without A Country: Eyewitness Accounts of the Attack on the USS Liberty, American Free Press, Washington, DC, 2009
When one considers that thousands of books, articles, essays, documentaries, and blockbuster films have been made concerning pivotal events in history such as Pearl Harbor and the assassination of JFK; at the same time we need to ask: why has no such attention towards the attack on the USS Liberty (June 8, 1967) taken place? After all, had the ship been sunk as planned, it would have kicked off a monumental (possibly nuclear) exchange between the US and USSR. The reason for this silence over the Liberty attack is simple. It didn t go off as planned, meaning the ship was not sunk. More importantly, the entity responsible for this attack was the most sacred of all sacred cows–Israel. Moreover, any rational person that spent even five minutes considering the facts of this event would walk away concluding that it was a deliberate act of war against the United States. In this book, readers will come into contact with many of these facts– disturbing items that have been kept deliberately, some might even say fanatically hidden, for nearly half a century. They paint the ultimate picture of set-up, betrayal, and cover-up; both by Israel and elements within the US government of an event that, had it gone as planned, would have irrevocably changed life as the world knows it.
Phillip F. Tourney and John Glenn, What I Saw That Day: Israel's June 8, 1967 Holocaust of US Servicemen Aboard the USS Liberty and Its Aftermath, Liberty Publications, 2009,
Personal eyewitness testimony of Phil Tourney, US Navy Petty Officer concerning Israel's 2 hour attack upon his ship USS LIBERTY on June 8, 1967 and the following cover-up by the US government.
Notorious incident: In 1967 the spy ship USS Liberty was attacked by Israeli fighter jets and torpedo boats in international waters during the Six-Day War. Thirty-four sailors were killed and more than 170 wounded, many critically. Israel claimed mistaken identity, which a U.S. naval court of inquiry confirmed, but that explanation is contradicted by the facts of the case.
• Based on new revelations: James Scott has interviewed Liberty survivors, senior U.S. political and intelligence officials, and examined newly declassified documents in Israel and the United States to write this comprehensive, dramatic account. He reveals that officers in Israel’s chain of command were aware of the Liberty’ s identity and shows how events in Vietnam prompted the American government to deemphasize the attack despite widespread disbelief of Israel’s story.
• The son of an attack survivor: Scott’s father, John, was an officer and engineer aboard the Liberty who was awarded the Silver Star for helping to save the ship from sinking.
Assault on the USS Liberty: Deliberate Action or Tragic Accident CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
he USS Liberty was an unarmed electronic intelligence gathering naval vessel patrolling in international waters off the Sinai Peninsula in 1967. It was abruptly attacked by Israel but received no aid from American aircraft in the area. This study will explore geopolitical conditions at the time, what happened, what the American and Israeli official response was, and bring other facts together from both interviews with surviving crew and memoirs of senior government officials to attempt to develop a complete picture of events related to the USS Liberty. While personal testimony from those directly involved in the incident indicates Tel Aviv may have deliberately targeted the American ship, the question of whether the attack was intentional or the result of a “perfect storm” of command and control failures on both sides, remains unresolved.
Phillip F Nelson Remember the Liberty!: Almost Sunk by Treason on the High Seas' 2017
In the annals of US military history, there are no doubt many unsolved and perplexing mysteries, but few could compare to the fate of the US Navy spy ship that was mercilessly attacked by one of its closest allies intentionally and without warning. One of the reasons it is still a mystery is because it is also the only peacetime attack on a US naval vessel that, to this day, has never been investigated by the Congress of the United States.
The USS Liberty was a 455-foot, 10,150-ton electronic intercept spy ship, originally a standard-design Victory Ship–a more evolved version of the World War II Liberty Ships–which were built as supply ships, not intended for direct fighting. The Liberty had been converted to an Auxiliary Technical Research Ship (AGTR), known colloquially as a "spy ship," first deployed in 1965; its top speed was only 18 knots.
Yet the Liberty's fate, one of the most enigmatic, unresolved military mysteries of all time, is, paradoxically at its core, quite clear-cut and undisputed. The basic facts generally accepted by all are that, on the fourth day of the Six Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbors (Egypt, Syria and Jordan), the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) savagely attacked the U.S. spy ship, the USS Liberty.
On the warm, sunny-bright day of June 8, 1967, starting at about 6:00 a.m., at least twelve, possibly thirteen Israeli aircraft of different types began surveilling the Liberty, some of which were only 1,000 feet or less in altitude, apparently to photograph and "map" her for later targeting purposes. The precision of the later attack could only have been accomplished through such pre-planning, specifically identifying the priority targets, starting with the gun mounts to render the ship defenseless, followed by all of the forty-five different radio antennae and related transmitting equipment. . Beginning just before 2:00 p.m., three unmarked French-built Mirage III-C swept-wing fighter jets, without warning, settled into a triangular formation, aimed straight at the Liberty and proceeded to bore down on the ship in a fast low-level attack that began with rockets targeted at the four gun mounts and heat-seeking missiles aimed at the communications gear, with their warmed transmitters. . When the attack was over, thirty-four men were dead and one hundred seventy-four were injured to varying degrees, some near death.
Unlike all other books ever written about the tragic attack – none of which provide a satisfactory explanation of what really caused it – Remember the Liberty! examines it in complete context of how it was positioned there by Johnson himself, for the very purpose of being attacked, and sunk, with every one of the 294 men on board going to the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. His purpose was to use that event – while blaming Egyptian President Gamal Nasser for the attack – as a pretext for joining Israel in the war, even at the risk of igniting World War III with the Soviet Union. This book provides the only realistic explanation for why Lyndon Johnson did what he did, and why, in the heat of battle, he intervened with his Navy officers who were determined to rescue the Liberty and ordered them to recall the squadrons of fighter jets they had already dispatched – twice, 90 minutes apart – for that purpose.
When the heroic crew saved the ship from sinking, it stopped Johnson's plan to join Israel in the war and thereby saved the world from certain nuclear conflagration. It also prevented his strategy of entering what he felt would be a "popular war" (unlike his other one in Vietnam) in order to give him a better chance to be reelected president the following year. When that failed to materialize, so did his reelection campaign; ten months later he was forced to announce his decision to not re-run for the office that he had always considered his destiny.
Presents evidence suggesting collusion between US and Israeli intelligence in the attack on a US naval surveillance vessel during the Six-Day War and the more than fifty-year long cover-up.
resents evidence suggesting collusion between US and Israeli intelligence in the attack on a US naval surveillance vessel during the Six-Day War and the more than fifty-year long cover-up.On June 8, 1967, the USS Liberty, an unarmed intelligence ship reporting to the Joint Chiefs of Staff under the auspices of the National Security Agency, was positioned in international waters off the coast of Egypt when it was attacked with deadly violence by unmarked jet planes firing rockets and machine guns and throwing napalm onto its deck. This ambush was followed by a torpedo strike that blew a forty-foot hole in the starboard side of the ship. Lacking the capacity to defend themselves, thirty-four sailors were killed and 174 wounded, many for life. By the end of the day, Israel had confessed to having been the aggressor, simultaneously arguing that the attack had been an "accident" and a "mistake."The facts said otherwise. So intense and sustained was the attack – it lasted for nearly an hour and a half – so specific was the aiming for the antennae and satellite dish on deck, that it was scarcely credible that Israel's aggression was not deliberate; such was the view of Marshall Carter, the director of the National Security Agency, his deputy director Louis Tordella, and Richard Helms, the Director of Central Intelligence.Based on interviews with more than forty survivors, knowledgeable political insiders, and Soviet archives of the period, investigative writer Joan Mellen presents evidence suggesting complicity between US and Israeli intelligence in the attack on Liberty and the more than fifty-year long cover-up. What were the underlying motives? Was this a false flag operation conducted in the midst of the Six-Day War? Was it conceivable that Israel would have initiated such an operation without a green light from the United States?For the sake of justice, truth and the murdered and surviving sailors, this is a story demanding to be told.
Bryce Lockwood has amassed a trove of unique military experiences during a brief span of time. Born on a small farm in rural New York State in 1939, he graduated from high school in Afton, New York in 1957. He soon made the decision to enlist in the Marine Corps and, in 1960, married his fiancee, Lois. In the next few years, his military career led to language school in Monterey, California, where he completed Russian linguist training followed by Cold War assignments in locations such as Scotland, Turkey and the former West Germany. However, the most unforgettable moment of his military assignments came with temporary orders for service aboard the USS Liberty – a U.S. intelligence ship. While serving as a Russian linguist aboard the vessel, he lived through an attack by Israeli warplanes and torpedo boats during the Six-Day War, resulting in the deaths of 34 and wounding 174 Americans. As the only U.S. Marine to survive the incident, Lockwood became the recipient of a Silver Star medal for rescuing three sailors trapped in flooded compartments in addition to receiving a Purple Heart for severe burns incurred in a torpedo explosion. Lockwood later served a tour in Vietnam and, in 1971, received a medical retirement after thirteen years of service. In recent years, he has sought the truth behind the unprovoked assault on the USS Liberty, which left many of his friends severely wounded or dead. In recent decades, Lockwood has joined other Liberty survivors in petitioning Congress for an open and thorough investigation of the attack.
- אורנה כץ-אתר, פרשת טיבוע אניית הצי האמריקני 'ליברטי': גלגולה של עלילה, קתדרה 142, טבת תשע"ב, 2011, עמ' 130-111.
ושני סרטים דוקומנטריים בנושא :
More than forty-five years after the deadly attack on the USS Liberty by Israel's Air Force and Navy in 1967, it is still a matter of controversy. The combined Israeli assault during the Six-Day War in June 1967 killed 24 Americans and wounded 171, while the Liberty was monitoring 12 miles offshore in international waters. Cutting through all of the conspiracy theories, Capt. A Jay Cristol, USN (Ret.) has spent a quarter-century researching what really happened that day. In his newest book, The Liberty Incident Revealed: The Definitive Account of the 1967 Israeli Attack on the U.S. Navy Spy Ship, he combines his painstaking analysis of the incident drawn from all of the sources, including tapes of intercepts recently released by the National Security Agency; formerly classified and open-source documents; and his interviews with all then-living individuals directly involved in the incident. Join Cristol as he explains why he contends that the documentary record is clear—the incident was a tragic case of mistaken identity. This event took place March 18, 2014.
The Israeli nuclear bomb is both an open and an official state secret. While under (the reign of) president Johnson the USA developes a friendship with Israel, the sowiet union takes a decisive course to expose israels nuclear program. They want to provoke isreal into making an attack. In 1967, the Russians implement their plan by sending the foxbat aircraft to the secret nuclear research center in Dimona. For the first time, the highly armed Israelis are helpless. As the sowiet union hoped, isreal attacks the arab airforce – surprisingly successful. In this tense situation, the US deploids the USS Liberty, a spy ship.